White birch (Betula pendula) is a deciduous deciduous tree with a well-developed root system. Characteristic of the root system of white birch is that the lateral roots are more developed, which originate almost from the base of the plant. In contrast, the main root is relatively small and short. The soils on which white birch grows best are gray forest and brown forest soils. The stem of the white birch is relatively thin and is covered with white bark, which periodically falls into thin scales. The white color characteristic of the bark is due to the content of the substance betulin in its composition. This is the only white dye that exists in nature.
At a height of white birch reaches about 30 meters. The shape of the leaf blade is diamond-shaped to almost triangular (ie deltoid). The edge of the leaf is double serrated. The leaves are connected by long leaf stalks to the branches of the tree.
The male inflorescences of the white birch are long hanging fringes. Each fringe is made up of a large number of small flowers. Each birch flower is composed of a four-part perianth and 2 to 3 stamens. The female flowers are also gathered in fringes, but unlike the male fringes, the female ones are ovoid or spherical in shape. Each female flower has a pistil with a two-part lollipop. Flowering of white birch lasts about a month and a half. The optimal age of white birch is about 150 years.