Conifers (Pinopsida) are a class of seed plants in the Pinophyta division.
All modern conifers are without exception woody plants (trees and shrubs). Of the great variety of gymnosperms that once existed on earth, only about 800 species have reached us today. Despite the fact that the species of conifers are much smaller in number than angiosperms, some of them occupy vast areas of land, and many of them are also species of large size and valuable wood, and have important environmental and economic importance.
Some classifications include Ginkgophyta, Gnetophyta, and Cycadophyta in the Pinophyta division, while others are separate divisions.
Conifers differ from angiosperms in a number of features, the most important of which are the following:
The seed bud in these plants is laid openly and is not hidden in the pistil as in angiosperms.
The conducting elements in gymnosperms are only tracheids.
As there is no pistil, they do not produce fruit, only seeds. The seeds are grouped on specific organs called cones, which are modified twigs.